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Summer Heat May Not Diminish Coronavirus Strength

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The homebound and virus-wary across the Northern Hemisphere, from President Trump to cooped-up schoolchildren, have clung to the possibility that the coronavirus pandemic will fade in hot weather, as some viral diseases do.

But the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, in a public report sent to the White House, has said, in effect: Don’t get your hopes up. After reviewing a variety of research reports, a panel concluded that the studies, of varying quality of evidence, do not offer a basis to believe that summer weather will interfere with the spread of the coronavirus. The pandemic may lessen because of social distancing and other measures, but the evidence so far does not inspire confidence in the benefits of sun and humidity.

The report, sent to Kelvin Droegemeier, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy at the White House and acting director of the National Science Foundation, was a brief nine-page communication known as a rapid expert consultation.

Kristian Andersen, an immunologist at the Scripps Research Translational Institute in California and a member of the Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases and 21st Century Health Threats at the National Academies, said: “Given current data, we believe that the pandemic likely will not diminish because of summer, and we should be careful not to base policies and strategies around the hope that it will.”

“We might very well see a reduction in spread in the beginning of the summer,” he added, “but we have to be careful not to put that down to a changing climate — it is plausible that such a reduction could be due to other measures put in place.”

Human behavior will be most important. Dr. David Relman, who studies host-microbe interactions at Stanford, said if a human coughs or sneezes enough virus “close enough to the next susceptible person, then temperature and humidity just won’t matter that much.”

The report from the National Academies, independent agencies that advise the government and the public, cited a small number of well-controlled laboratory studies that show that high temperature and humidity can diminish the ability of the novel coronavirus to survive in the environment. But the report noted the studies had limitations that made them less than conclusive.

It also noted that although some reports showed pandemic growth rates peaking in colder conditions, those studies were short and limited. A preliminary finding in one such study, by scientists at M.I.T., found fewer cases of Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, in warmer climates, but arrived at no definitive conclusion.

“Specially in the U.S., any effect, even in the summer months, may not be highly visible, so our real chance to stop this virus is indeed through taking quarantine measures,” said Qasim Bukhari, a computational scientist at M.I.T. who is a co-author of the study.

The report sent to the White House also struck a cautionary note: “Given that countries currently in ‘summer’ climates, such as Australia and Iran, are experiencing rapid virus spread, a decrease in cases with increases in humidity and temperature elsewhere should not be assumed,” it said.

Pandemics do not behave the same way seasonal outbreaks do. For the National Academies’ report, researchers looked at the history of flu pandemics as an example. “There have been 10 influenza pandemics in the past 250-plus years — two started in the Northern Hemisphere winter, three in the spring, two in the summer and three in the fall,” the report said. “All had a peak second wave approximately six months after emergence of the virus in the human population, regardless of when the initial introduction occurred.”

On March 16, President Trump said the virus might “wash” through in warmer weather.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s leading expert on infectious diseases, has expressed different opinions about the effect of summer on the virus, some more optimistic than others. In a live-streamed interview on Wednesday, Dr. Howard Bauchner, the editor in chief of The Journal of the American Medical Association, asked him about the fall, which Dr. Fauci said would be very challenging, after a period this summer when “it’s almost certainly going to go down a bit.”

On March 26, however, in a conversation on Instagram with Stephen Curry of the Golden State Warriors, Dr. Fauci said that although it wasn’t unreasonable to assume the summer weather could diminish the spread, “you don’t want to count on it.”

Knvul Sheikh contributed reporting.

Health and Wellness

I have started to do Yoga, Hiit at home, and what am I, or I start to notice, after a few sessions, the abdomen and legs firmer?

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Give the profile of Irene Alda on Instagram has been the best thing that could have happened to me now that I am so much time at home. This yoga instructor teaches a discipline that is defined as Yiit, that is to say, yoga+hiit. For those that missed workout in the fitness room, the TRX, the machines of strength and dumbbells, the possibility to practice this discipline at home is a real gift because it has it ALL:

· You do not need any itemwork with your own body. Great, if you don’t have gym gear at home.

· Incorporates cardioperfect for our heart to pump and to move the oxygen, so complicated when you can’t even walk.

· You work a lot of the flexibility so that the body acquires a very harmoniouswithout mark too the muscles.

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How Bubonic Plague Has Helped Russia Fight the Coronavirus

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MOSCOW — In a remote alpine meadow in Kyrgyzstan a few years ago, a teenage boy killed and skinned a marmot. Five days later, his parents carried the sweating, delirious boy to a village hospital where he died of bubonic plague.

Like a ghost from the medieval past, the plague still makes occasional, unwelcome appearances in remote regions of the former Soviet Union, where it survives today in wild rodents.

Over the centuries, with improved public hygiene, the plague declined as a threat. Today, as a bacterial infection, it is treatable with antibiotics, if caught in time.

But the plague was still a lethal menace in the 1920s and also an embarrassment for the Soviet Union, which established a specialized state agency to track and contain it.

Successors to that agency still exist in Russia and in half a dozen other countries that were once Soviet republics, and, with their ready quarantine plans and trained personnel, they have become a mainstay of the regional response to the coronavirus.

“Of course, it helped” early on, said Ravshan Maimulov, director of a regional antiplague service in Kyrgyzstan who examined the teenage plague victim when he died in 2013. He used the same quarantine plan that he had instituted after the boy’s death to respond to the coronavirus in March.

When the 15-year-old had arrived at the village hospital, “the body was still damp from sweat and I felt swelling under the armpits and chin,” Mr. Maimulov said. But the boy was too far gone to save, and he died within hours.

Mr. Maimulov, 57, trained at a Russian antiplague institute called Microbe. After the boy’s death, he had the authority to immediately put in motion plans for a lockdown, even though at that point they had only a partial diagnosis.

He relayed the news to a regional governor in code — they would need to implement “Formula 100” — lest word leak and inhabitants of the village, Ichke-Zhergez, should try to flee before the door slammed shut.

“We needed to prevent them all from running away,” he said. By the next morning, police checkpoints were in place and the village was sealed.

On his recommendation, the authorities in the surrounding Issyk-Kul region used the same approach in March in introducing coronavirus lockdowns. “We worked under the operative plan for the plague,” Mr. Maimulov said in a telephone interview. The region of about half a million people has reported three coronavirus cases, he said. Kyrgyzstan has reported five deaths.

Russia maintains 13 antiplague centers, from the Far East to the Caucasus Mountains, five plague research institutes and multiple field stations. In March, the authorities moved new laboratory equipment into the antiplague center in Moscow to expand its ability to test for coronavirus.

The Microbe institute, originally dedicated wholly to bubonic plague but later expanded to tackle other infections such as cholera, yellow fever, anthrax and tularemia, models the spread of the coronavirus.

Starting in January, directors of antiplague centers in the Eurasian Economic Union, the Moscow-led trade alliance of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, held conference calls about the coronavirus. And a plague institute in Odessa, Ukraine, is among agencies responding to the coronavirus there, officials said.

“The very fact that Russia and the other former Soviet states are, exactly, former Soviet states means a common legacy,” in health care, said Dmitri Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center. A legacy of focus on epidemics helped, he said. Soviet health care had haphazard success at treating individuals but “could respond like the military to epidemics,” he noted.

Other analysts of former Soviet medical services say that, in the longer term, the Soviet legacy will prove no gift. The capacity to counter epidemics had degraded while little was done to improve an ability to treat patients, according to Yevgeny S. Gontmakher, a professor at the Higher School of Economics and an authority on Russian health care.

“The plague doctors were the elite of a hundred years ago, not today,” he said.

In Kyrgyzstan, Mr. Maimulov works in a wooden laboratory in what had been, until a few weeks ago, the medical backwater of plague control. Most years, he plans for campaigns of spraying insecticide into rodent burrows, to kill fleas and slow the spread in animals.

The disease cannot be fully stamped out. “They are rodents, they reproduce quickly,” he said. “It’s not worthwhile to kill them.”

The family of the 15-year-old boy were herding sheep in the mountains and trapping marmots for fur as a sideline. The boy skinned the marmot with a razor blade. Though the Black Death typically spreads by flea bite, in this instance the boy caught it simply by nicking his finger.

Eventually, 32 villages were put under quarantine while about 700 nurses went door to door looking for infection. Marmot hides were collected and burned. But the antiplague team had acted quickly enough. The boy was the only confirmed case.

Oleg Matsnev contributed reporting.

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A strength training and cardio that you can do at home in 15 minutes

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That we are confined does not mean that we train: it is one of the key guidelines to maintain a healthy life style, also in these circumstances. So, today I bring you this training that combines strength work and cardioto get a full workout without the need to use more material objects that you have at home.

This training, although we followed, consists of two parts: an anaerobic, in which we will seek to increase the strength due to our body weight and other cardiovascular to finish the training. All training will be able to complete from the same room of our house.

We begin with the part of strength in which we will perform the following exercises one after another without stretching a lot of break times. We will not set a specific time, but the idea is that you will not recover at all between sets and you get to the next series somewhat tiredbut you can complete it.

EXERCISE

SERIES

REPETITIONS

Squats

4

15

Funds triceps on chair

3

12

Push-ups

3

12

Remo table

4

12

And finally we ended up with a small interval training of high intensity with a structure Tabata in which we will do a single exercise. In this case we opted for the burpees since this is an exercise very complete and in addition, with little time, it will speed up our body and help to burn a lot of calories. If you want to, you can choose another: the skipping, the hopping with jumping rope or jumping jacks are good examples.

Choose the exercise that we choose we will do six or eight sets of 20 seconds of work and 10 seconds of rest, thus completing between three and four minutes of cardiovascular work.

As always, so you can be sure to perform each exercise properly we will explain them one by one.

A cardio workout without jumps, and without material with exercises to do in your own home

Squats

We started working our legs with a squats free of weight and deep. We put the feet with a separation similar to the width of our shoulders, the soles of the feet well supported on the floor and the toes facing forward.

In this position we bring the buttocks back slightly, while keeping your back as upright as possible at all times and flex the knees to perform a movement similar to that which we would want to sit in a chair that was behind us. Keep in mind that the weight must fall on our heels and not on the toe.

Funds triceps on chair

funds-triceps-chair-training-in-house

To work our arms, mainly the back, we’re going to make funds with a chair or on a chair. We place ourselves in front of the chair or armchair, we support the hands with the fingers facing forward and support our feet on the ground.

From this position flexionaremos our elbows until they form an angle of about 90 °, directing always our elbows back. After, we will stretch our elbows to return to the initial position.

Remember, if you are a beginner, you can put your knees bent and your feet close to your glutes for ease of movement, loading and less weight. If you’re already an expert, keep your legs straight and feet clear of the buttocks.

15-minutes of training material with exercises to put your abs to the point at home

Push-ups

push-ups chest-workout-at-home

To work the pectoral there is nothing better than a few pushups at home. We can do them with your feet flat, if we have strength, or on our knees if we are beginners or we are unable to complete the 12 repetitions.

We will stand on the floor with the palms of your hands directly beneath your shoulders, and the forefoot of both feet or knees on the floor. In this position flexing our elbows, guiding them backuntil the chest touch the ground and return to stretch your arms to complete one repetition.

Remo table

To work our back home we will perform a rowing invested using a table and our body weight. We will stand under the table (you can also use a chair, though you will have less travel in the motion), and hold both sides of the table with the hands.

In this position we force by bending our elbows and getting close to our chest to the table all possible: it is a movement of pull similar to the rowing that we can do in the gym or in a dominated. Then down, controlling the movement until your arms are fully stretched to complete a repetition.

Burpees

We ended up with this cardiovascular exercise in format Tabatathat will help us to finish the training by burning calories. The burpees put together different movements to work virtually the whole body: a squat, a push and a vertical jump. Remember that in this training we’ll do six to eight sets of 20 seconds of work and 10 rest.

We begin standing in a relaxed position, with the legs open to the width of our hip. Perform a squat and we support our hands in the soil: with a leap, we carry our legs backward up into a pushup position or plank front. From there, we made a bending, touching our chest with the floor, or relying directly on the floor if we are newbies. We return to the pushup position and, with a jump, collect the legs forward: we go back to stand up and chain a vertical jump, to help us bringing our arms up.

This article was originally posted by Victor Falcon in march of 2019 and has been revised for republication.

Videos | Tutograma and Vitónica
Image | iStock
In Vitónica | A circuit of functional training that you can do in your own home

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