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To Beat Covid-19, Scientists Try to ‘See’ the Invisible Enemy

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But the CDC illustration is far from the full picture. For one thing, each virus particle is not identical. Researchers have now observed that some virus particles are spherical, while others are more egg-shaped. Their sizes vary, with diameters ranging from 80 to 160 nanometers. Lined up side by side, nearly 1,000 coronaviruses would fit across the width of an eyelash.

Courtesy of CDC

In addition, the envelope of the virus isn’t actually grey, and its spikes aren’t red—the pathogen is too small to have color. What humans perceive as color is primarily the consequence of light waves reflecting off of—or being absorbed by—the surfaces of objects. But the coronavirus is smaller than visible light itself. Its diameter is some three times narrower than the wavelength range of violet light, the visible light with the shortest wavelengths.

“It is very much an artistic interpretation,” says Alissa Eckert, the medical illustrator who made the CDC portrait with colleague Dan Higgins. “It’s purposely simplified into what communicates the best.”

Drug and vaccine design require much more scientifically precise images. Researchers are magnifying the microbe by more than 40,000 times, taking extreme close-ups to understand its structural intricacies. For example, in February, biologist Jason McLellan of the University of Texas at Austin and his team released highly-magnified 3D images of the coronavirus’s spike protein.

The team did not study the spike protein as it exists in the wild, attached to the surface of a real virus. Instead, they recreated the part of the virus’s genome, which scientists in China publicly released on January 11, that contains the instructions to make the protein. McLellan’s team inserted those genes into cultured human embryonic kidney cells, which then produced those spike proteins. They extracted those proteins and imaged them.

McLellan’s team imaged the protein spike using a method known as cryo-electron microscopy, in which they fired a thin beam of electrons at frozen, individual proteins clinging to a fine mesh. The electrons, traveling near the speed of light, bounce off the atoms of the protein onto a detector. The resulting pattern on the detector forms an image. The researchers repeat the process to create thousands of images of proteins on the mesh, all oriented in different directions. “You then use algorithms to try to recreate the object that could give all those different views,” says McLellan.

Read all of our coronavirus coverage here.

Other researchers also use a method called X-ray crystallography to study the virus’s structure. In this method, they take multiple copies of the biological molecule in question and arrange them in neat rows to form a crystal. Then, they beam X-rays at the crystal, and can infer the virus’s structure from the areas of shadow and brightness formed by the transmitted X-rays. They use the crystalline form of the molecules because it reduces the number of X-rays they have to use—X-rays can blow the molecule into smithereens if applied at too high of a dose. (Rosalind Franklin discovered the double-helix structure of DNA using X-ray crystallography.)

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Rhode Island Comic Con Panel Recap: Choose Your Realm, Westeros or Hogwarts?

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Courtesy of Co-director, Lindsey DeLuca.

Rhode Island Comic Con was held at the Rhode Island Convention Center and Dunkin’ Donuts Center this year from November 1-3. Nerds and Beyond joined the large crowds of people that were in attendance for an amazing time at the biggest show in the smallest state.

One of the highlights of the weekend was the variety of celebrity Q&A panels that were available for attendees to sit in on. Keep reading for our recap of two of the panels that were not to be missed!

Courtesy of Rhode Island Comic Con.

Winter is coming (really), and what better way to usher in the White Walkers’ favorite season than a chat with Alfie Allen (Theon Greyjoy) and Kristian Nairn (Hodor)? The Game of Thrones panel, aptly titled “One More Trip to Westeros,” was an excellent and insightful journey.

The panel began with a question about how the actors felt now that Game of Thrones is over. Nairn reflected on Hodor and explained that he initially wondered how much he could bring to the character, as he wanted him to be real, not a ridiculed laughing stock. He then realized that he was able to convey something beautiful and human with Hodor, which was very apparent on-screen. Allen, meanwhile, said that he had a specific and unique journey because his character was initially hated and ridiculed (before Theon’s big comeback!). He feels that it’s interesting to look back on it objectively now and is ultimately eternally grateful to have been a part of the show.

Because of what his character went through on the show, Allen discussed how he has a lot of conversations with people now about mental health. He went on to say that in regards to being able to talk about it, being honest, and being a symbol for it, he “can’t think of anything better.”

When asked if there was a character on Game of Thrones that they wish their own character had gotten a chance to have a scene with, Nairn replied that he would have liked to have worked with Charles Dance (who portrayed Tywin Lannister). They were then asked if they would like to have played any other character, and Allen said Ramsey (because there’s a lot of license to do what you like in that role), and Nairn said Varys or Brienne.

Allen, when someone inquired as to which scene in Game of Thrones that they were most proud of, referred back to the scene in season 6, episode 1 where Brienne and Pod show up to save Sansa and Theon. Allen described a moment (which he said was small but important to him) where Theon had been staring at Sansa, but turns his gaze to the ground when she looks over at him. He explained that this small reaction was not planned, he just naturally did it because it felt right, and he really liked how the scene turned out.

Nairn, of course, referred to the infamous door scene. He laughed as he reflected on how many doors were involved throughout various takes, and also explained that there were a lot of emotions because filming fell on his birthday, and those were his last few days on set.

Allen was asked what made him say yes to the role of Theon Greyjoy. He explained how big of a deal it was at the time for someone to have a chance to work with HBO, especially in England! He said that it didn’t seem real to him that he could potentially be a part of an HBO show, as he was actually watching HBO’s The Wire at the time. Interestingly enough, Allen actually auditioned for the roles of Jon Snow and Robb Stark before eventually taking on the role of Theon.

The topic of off-camera moments was brought up, and Allen launched into a tale about a time when he, Richard Madden (Robb Stark), and Kit Harington (Jon Snow) went out to a club (which Nairn was DJing at!) and found themselves in a bit of trouble. Trouble being defined as Allen inviting himself up on stage to do his own “routine” amongst the ladies that were up there performing. Unsurprisingly, he was quickly removed from the establishment.

Nairn, meanwhile, went on to discuss how one of his first days of filming ended up being one of his toughest days on set. As he was new to the acting world, he didn’t really know what to expect. He specifically referenced the scene in which Tyrion presents Bran with his newly fitted saddle, and Hodor then has to carry Bran. Nairn quickly learned about how difficult the repetition of filming scenes can be — eight times!

When asked about their previous knowledge of Game of Thrones before working on the show, Nairn stated that he knew nothing about the book series and hadn’t even heard of it. However, when he told his mother he was auditioning, she “freaked out” and told him to say yes if he got the part. She was the one that encouraged him to take on what ended up being his first professional acting role!

Allen had not read the books, and when he later asked if he should, he was told that they would leave that up to him. Though he did start reading them, he eventually stopped because the direction of the story changed as the show took on a life of its own. He also laughed as he remarked how he looks nothing like the book version of Theon.

Overall, Allen and Nairn’s panel was an absolute delight. It was a pleasure to hear about their experiences working on such a huge and epic series that has meant so much to so many people. 

Courtesy of Rhode Island Comic Con.

Wands at the ready? To end off this phenomenal weekend, RICC brought us back to Hogwarts with “Avada Kedavra! Wizarding 101” featuring Bonnie Wright (Ginny Weasley), James and Oliver Phelps (Fred and George Weasley), and Evanna Lynch (Luna Lovegood). Before we launch into the panel’s details, we wanted to commend RICC on their organization for this massive panel. It was clear as we queued that not everyone who had lined up would be getting to the panel, and RICC handled it flawlessly with only allowing a certain amount of fans into the ballroom at once, the staff communicating effectively on how many more seats were available before sending another group in.

It’s no secret that Lynch had been a Potter fan before her casting — and that Luna Lovegood had been her favorite — but it’s still always wonderful to hear her talk about that love she still holds for her character. She retold a story of how just the year before her casting as Luna, she dressed as her for Halloween, even hand-making her own set of radish earrings. The designers over at WB loved her version so much that they purchased the pattern from her and replicated them for the film and memorabilia later on. “She had a mature mindset,” Lynch reminisced about Luna, “I found solace in her character. Her self-acceptance made it so she didn’t judge other people.”

The Harry Potter cast across all the films feature some true masters of their craft. When asked which of their veteran cast mates they enjoyed working with most, the Phelps landed on Michael Gambon (Albus Dumbledore), and Wright enjoyed David Thewlis’ portrayal of Remus Lupin, her favorite professor from the books, so much she asked him to star in her directorial debut, Separate We Go. Lynch recalled as an actress new to filming the ease and playfulness of Helena Bonham Carter (Bellatrix Lestrange) and Jason Isaacs (Lucius Malfoy), and how watching them taught her that acting really, truly is about playing and having fun.

What would a celebrity panel be without one the most classic questions at a fan Q&A: what was the funniest moment from set? The group laughed as they told a few silly stories, one of which being when Dumbledore’s Army is discovered in the Room of Requirement in The Order of the Phoenix. Straight faces were limited, they remembered, with each take getting progressively funnier the more it was shot.

Harry Potter also breaks the hearts of its readers with some fan-favorite character deaths, and the Phelps, despite one of their characters dying in the books, mentioned Harry’s trusty owl Hedwig’s shocking demise as one of the most impactful deaths of the series. Lynch had to tell her mom to take the book and hide it after Dumbledore’s death in The Half-Blood Prince. Wright thought Sirius’ death packed the most punch, and that’s definitely up there for us, too. Speaking of the books, James Phelps loved Prisoner of Azkaban, Oliver Phelps thinks Goblet of Fire is the best of the bunch, and both Lynch and Wright agreed that Order of the Phoenix is number one.

This series is important to a lot of people, and gaining more fans every day, and this panel made it clear it was just as important to the actors in the films. James Phelps felt fortunate to have worked with such a fantastic crew and set that was fun to go to everyday. It gave Wright the inspiration to go to college and study film, the knowledge of the craft of filmmaking enrapturing her. Lynch was amazed by the creativity involved, and she learned that imagination really is a magic power — the ability to see something in your head and then turn it into a work of art.

Lynch also volunteered herself for a role in the films when they get rebooted — she’d love to play Trelawney! And in the same token, she hoped that they would consider an entire series of one episode per chapter, and the crowd certainly agreed. But the question flipped from who they’d like to play to how the characters defined them as actors. The Phelps both agreed that Fred and George were very saturated versions of themselves, while Wright noted there was a blurred line where Ginny ended and Bonnie began. She remembered it took a few years to process the whole experience and realize how significant and formative it was, and to celebrate it. Lynch commended that the characters were so well written and developed, it made the job easier. She wanted to find more individuals like Luna who inspire her and make her want to be better.

The panel ended with the actors revealing their own Hogwarts houses. Oliver Phelps wanted to remain a Gryffindor, but it turns out that the ever-popular Pottermore revealed them both to be Hufflepuffs! Wright mirrored her on-screen character with a sorting into Gryffindor, where she was joined by Lynch per the quizzes, who was happy with her sorting (although she sometimes wished it was Ravenclaw).

It was so great to see these old cast mates together once again, the love for their Potter characters still abundantly clear. It was just like going back to Hogwarts, even if only for an hour.

The Nerds and Beyond team was at Rhode Island Comic Con all weekend, and we had a blast. You can read about our take on RICC as a whole here!

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Originally posted 2020-04-28 15:16:15.

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VIDEO: Preview for ‘Criminal Minds’ Season 15, Episode 5 “Ghost”

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This upcoming weeks episode of Criminal Minds titled “Ghost” will follow the unit as they investigate a possible copycat killer.

While there may not necessarily be any spirits flying around the BAU, that idea is haunting in itself. At the end of this week’s episode four, there was a teaser that showed Simmons and Alvez inside of a warehouse tied up and in danger with a male’s voice that says “I will watch both of you suffer”.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBw1C4vgbIc

Check out the synopsis for the episode below:

“Ghost”– Following a series of fatal shootings, the BAU team travels to Des Plaines, Ill. to investigate what appears to be a copycat serial killer. Their efforts are thrown off track when members of the BAU are targeted, on ‘CRIMINAL MINDS’, Wednesday, January 29 (9:00-10:00 PM, ET/PT) on the CBS Television Network.

There is also a trio of sneak peek videos on the Criminal Minds YouTube channel for next weeks episode that you can watch here.

Criminal Minds airs Wednesday nights at 9 p.m. ET on CBS.

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Originally posted 2020-04-27 15:52:31.

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A Step By Step Guide On Getting Your Company Ready For GST Implementation

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GST came into effect on 1st July 2017. Nearly all indirect taxes got subsumed because of its implementation (minus a few state taxes). It is a multi-staged tax and gets collected at points of consumption.

Economists also refer to it as destination-based tax. GST council is accountable for regulating the tax rates, and it oversees various rules and regulations of GST.

The government introduced GST to substitute a slew of indirect taxes with a primary charge. Everyone expects it to reshape the current Indian economy and take it to higher levels.

Some people have also reprimanded the way this government implemented it. However, GST has shown positive outcomes in practically every aspect. It has served businesses and authorities alike.

You can read all about gst and gst latest amendments here.

It is compulsory for all entities or personnel involved in buying or selling goods or rendering services to be GST registered. All such businesses whose annual turnover is higher than INR 40 lakhs are eligible and have to register for GST compulsorily. For service providers, this limit is INR 20 lakhs.

Certain business entities need to file themselves under GST no matter what their annual turnover is. Here is a list:

  • Input Service Provider (ISP)
  • Casual Taxable Person (CTP)
  • Non-resident Taxable Person
  • Inter-state supplier of goods
  • Any service provider
  • Goods supplier through an e-commerce portal
  • E-commerce portal
  • TDS/TCS deductor
  • Online data access or retrieval service provider

All the business firms that compulsorily need to register themselves under GST may face a penalty if they don’t do so. The government may impose a fine of up to 10% of the taxable amount up to a maximum amount of INR 10,000.

You need to realize that you don’t have to spend on GST from your pocket. The government collects this tax from consumers as an output tax. There is a provision for an input tax credit in GST.

If you have paid GST for buying raw materials or any other services for manufacturing your commodities, you can file for a tax return. The administration will credit it back to you.

When listing your business under GST, you need these documents:

  • Your PAN Card (Personal Account Number Card)
  • Your Identity proof (for example Aadhaar Card, Voter ID Card)
  • Proof of business registration or certificate of incorporation
  • Bank account statement or a cancelled cheque
  • Digital signature
  • Authorization letter/ board resolution for authorized signatory

Things You Should Know Before Registering Your Company Under GST

GSTN (GST Network)

The government has made sure that there is no obstacle or delay to the taxpayers by shifting the whole registration process online. You can register your business under GST without having to run hither and tither to government offices.

To facilitate this, the government put together a network dedicated to everything related to GST. This network was called the GST Network (GSTN).

This portal is used by the government to track every single transaction ever recorded. This portal also facilitates the registration of firms and businesses under GST.

This portal handles everything from registration to filing taxes, from tax returns to maintaining all tax details.

Major Secret of GST Identification Number (GSTIN) and Applicability

GSTIN (GST Identification Number)

When you register for GST, a state-wide PAN-based unique number is provided to you. This unique number is called GSTIN. This number helps you to track your transactions, tax filings, and returns on the GSTN portal.

Many people get confused between GSTN and GSTIN. Both are not the same. GSTN is the network where you get all services related to GST. GSTIN is the unique number you get for registering under GST.

The format of GSTIN is vital to know. GSTIN is a 15 digit number. The first two numbers determine the state where this business belongs. The next ten digits tell the PAN Card number, and the last three figures show us the number of registrations in that state and the check code.

GSTIN can be obtained free of cost by the GSTN portal or from GST Seva Kendra set up by the government. Your application needs to be approved by the GST Officer before you can get a GSTIN.

GST Invoice

If you are a GST registered vendor or a service provider, you have to give your customers GST compliant invoices for the sale of goods or services.

Similarly, the vendors that you purchase from will provide you with a GST invoice. If you are a GST registered vendor or a service provider, you can file for a tax return.

A GST compliant invoice must contain the invoice number and date, the customer’s name, shipping and billing addresses, and customer’s GSTIN (if applicable).

It should also consist of HSN Code/SAC Code, item details, taxable values, and discounts, with rate and amount of taxes (CGST/SGST/IGST).

Remember, if the customer is not registered and the amount is higher than INR 50,000, there are different provisions. In that case, the invoice should compulsorily include the name and address of the recipient, the delivery address, and the state name and code.

There are tons of GST software in the market nowadays. These software help you in managing your GST while also validating the purchases and sales.

These software are capable of uploading the data to GSTN automatically. They can even file tax returns for you. Having such an automated computer client is always easier.

An Overview: GST Returns - PayU Blog

GSTR (GST Returns)

GSTR is a monthly return that is the summary of all outward payments of a vendor or a service provider. The GSTR-1 form has a total of 13 sections that you need to fill.

Every business needs to file for GSTR based on their yearly turnover. Firms that have a turnover of up to INR 1.5 crores will file quarterly returns. Whereas firms with turnover higher than that will file monthly returns.

Once filed, GSTR can not be revised. Any mistake made in the GSTR, you may rectify it in the next period. The government will impose a late fee of INR 200 per day for defaulters.

Conclusion

GST implementation is not a lengthy process, thanks to the quick and secure portal of GSTN. Now every person can register for GST and enjoy the benefits of the government’s policies.

The government also provides a GST composition scheme. Under this scheme, small taxpayers who have a yearly turnover of less than INR 1 crore can choose to pay GST at a fixed rate of turnover.

In simpler words, GST has simplified taxation for the government and has simplified tax returns for the public. Getting your business registered under GST is a smart move. 

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